Monday, September 19, 2005

Taal Volcano

Taal Volcano is located on the island Luzon, about 60 km SSE of the Philippines' captial Manila. It has been selected as one of 15 Decade Volcanoes.
It has made thirty three eruptions since 1572 at Taal, mostly on Volcano Island. The impacts of these eruptions were largely confined to the intracaldera area. Occasional violent activity, however, such as the 1754 plinian eruption, affected the entire region, including what is now the Metro Manila area with fallout. Some activity, such as the 1749 eruption, were accompanied by crustal disturbance and strong earthquakes, which generated ground fissures and pronounced subsidence that extended across Taal lake.
Elevation: 0.311 km
Type of Volcano: Tuff cone
Crater Lakes/Caldera/Maars:
MAIN CRATER LAKE - 1.9 km in diameter; blue-green in color, 4 m above sea level, deepest point: 76 m
Taal Volcano Island has 47 craters and 4 maars
TAAL CALDERA - 25 km across and formed between 140,000 to 5,380 BP
TAAL LAKE - inside the caldera; 267 sq. km and 2 m above sea level
Adjacent Volcanic Edifice: Makiling (NE) Malepunyo (E), Batulao (W) and Macolod (SE)

Rock Type: Olivine basalt, Andesite
Tectonic Setting: Macolod Corridor
Age of Deposits: 5380+_ 170 ybp (Radiocarbon age, Listanco, 1994)

Number of Historical Eruptions: 33
Latest Eruption/Activity: 1977 Oct. 3
Eruption Type:
1. Phreatic (e.g. 1878, 1911, 1970)
2. Phreatomagmatic (e.g. 1749, 1965, 1966)
3. Strombolian (e.g. 1968, 1969)
4. Plinian (e.g. 1754)

Sea Water

How many oceans are on Earth?

Earth is covered by one hydrosphere or one layer of connecting water. Even though the ocean is broken up into seven ocean parts, all the oceans are connected, one flowing into the other.

How many gallons of water are in the oceans?

There are 328 million cubic miles, or 3.612 x 10 20 gallons (361,200,000,000,000,000,000 gallons) of sea water in the ocean. If all that water were piled on top of the United States the land would be submerged under 88.2 miles of water. If the same amount of sea water was to be piled up onto all of the available land above sea level on this planet, the land would be 5.7 miles below the water's surface.