Thursday, April 21, 2005

Coke is it!!!!



In May, 1886, Coca Cola was invented by Doctor Dr. John Stith Pemberton,

Druggist John Stith Pemberton (1831-1888), inventor of Coca-Cola

a pharmacist from Atlanta, Georgia. Pemberton concocted a caramel-colored syrup in a three-legged brass kettle in his backyard. Pemberton launched his competing brand, "Pemberton's French Wine Coca", his beverage advertised as an "intellectual beverage" and "invigorator of the brain". He improved on Mariani's Coca Wine tonic through the addition of the kola nut-- famed for its medicinal properties--and damiana, a powerful, naturally occuring aphrodisiac. He marketed the drink as a nerve tonic, recommending it as an aid to overcome morphine addiction. He naturally failed to mention that he, as many medical practitioners of the time, had a serious morphine addiction problem. First named "Pemberton's French Wine Coca," the 'nerve remedy' was widely distributed at apothecaries throughout Atlanta, though it was a late-comer in the Coca Wine market, Mariani's Coca Wine being the internationally preferred coca wine tonic of choice until then.The name Coca-Cola was a suggestion given by John Pemberton's bookkeeper Frank M. Robinson.It was also Robinson who first scripted "Coca Cola" into the flowing letters which has become the famous logo of today. He first "distributed" the new product by carrying Coca-Cola in a jug down the street to Jacobs Pharmacy. For five cents, consumers could enjoy a glass of Coca-Cola at the soda fountain.


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1886
~
sales of Coca-Cola averaged nine drinks per day. That first year, Dr. Pemberton sold 25 gallons of syrup, shipped in bright red wooden kegs. Red has been a distinctive color associated with the No. 1 soft drink brand ever since. For his efforts, Dr. Pemberton grossed $50 and spent $73.96 on advertising.
1891
~
Atlanta entrepreneur Asa G. Candler had acquired complete ownership of the Coca-Cola business. Asa Griggs Candler, another local druggist, eventually purchased Pemberton's secret formula--for, reputedly, between $1,750 and $2,300, and elevated Coca-Cola to a national brand.
1893
~
In January "Coca-Cola" was registered in the U.S. Patent office.

1894
~
The first syrup plant outside of Atlanta was opened in Dallas.
By 1895, a mere seven years after he bought the company, Coca-Cola was available in every U.S. state. Atlanta banker Ernest Woodruff, president of the Trust Company of Georgia, recognized the company's potential and persuaded his son, Robert, to invest in the Coca-Cola Company.

1906
~
The first two countries outside the United States to bottle Coca-Cola were Cuba and Panama
1915
~
The Root Glass company created the Coca-Cola contour glass bottle.
1917
~
3 Million Coke's sold per day. "Coca-Cola " is the worlds most recognized trademark.
1919
~
The Coca-Cola Company was sold to a group of investors for $25 million.

1923
~
In 1923, Robert W. Woodruff became president of the now publicly traded company.Woodruff, at true innovator, proceeded to turn Coca Cola into a nationally recognized brand marketing his product like no other product had been marketed before. The company spent enormous sums (based on standards of the time) on advertising.1925 6 Million Coke's sold per day.

1927
~
The first Coca-Cola radio advertisement.
1928
~
Sales of bottled Coca-Cola surpassed fountain sales for the first time.
1929
~
Advertising slogan - "The Pause that Refreshes".
1940
~
Coke is bottled in over 40 countries.
1956
~
Advertising slogan - "Coca-Cola, making good things taste better".
1961
~
Sprite was introduced.
1970
~
Advertising slogan - "It's the Real Thing".
1971
~
The song "I'd like to Buy the World a Coke" was released.
1979
~
Advertising slogan - "Have a Coke and a Smile".
1982
~
Diet Coke was introduced in July.
1988
~
Coca-Cola was the first independent operator in the Soviet Union.
1989
~
Advertising slogan - "Can't Beat the Feeling".
1993
~
Coca-Cola exceeds 10 Billion cases sold worldwide.
1993
~
Advertising slogan - "Always Coca-Cola".
The Coca-Cola Company began bottling operations in ...
...
1907
in Hawaii.
...
1912
in the Philippines.
...
1920
in France.
...
1927
in Belgium, Bermuda, Colombia, Honduras, Italy, Mexico, Haiti and Burma.
...
1928
in Antigua, China, Guatemala, Holland, Spain, Venezuela, and the Dominican Republic.
...
1929
in Germany and Spanish Morocco.
...
1938
Australia, Austria, Gutana, Surinam, Jamaica, Curacao, Luxembourg, Norway, Scotland, South Africa, The Virgin Islands, and Trinidad.
...
1940
in Ecuador, and El Salvador.
...
1942
in Nicaragua, Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Iceland, and Uruguay.
...
1945
in Egypt, and Martinique
...
1946
in Barbados, Japan, and Okinawa
...
1947
in Morocco and Tangier
...
1948
in Liberia, Rhodesia, and Guadeloupe

More fun facts and trivia

  • Mexico and Iceland have the highest per capita consumption of Coca-Cola.
  • Coca-Cola translated to Chinese means, "To make mouth happy".
  • Every second over 7,000 Coca-Cola products are consumed.
  • If all the Coca-Cola ever produced were in 6 1/2 oz. bottles and placed end to end they would wrap around the earth more than 11,863 times.
  • The tallest Coca-Cola bottling plants are in Hong Kong. The plant in Quarry Bay is 17 floors, and the plant in Shatin is 25 floors.
  • The bottling plant at the highest elevation in the world is located in Bolivia, at 12,000 feet.
  • The world's longest Coca-Cola truck is in Sweden. It is 79 feet long with a four-azle trailer.
  • The best selling non-carbonated soft drink in Japan is a product of The Coca-Cola Company named "Georgia", a coffee flavored beverage.
  • Coca-Cola first crossed the Atlantic on board the Graf Zeppelin, the Geman dirigible.
  • The Varsity Restaurant in Atlanta, Georgia, has earned the distinction of serving the highest volume of Coca-Cola anywhere. It dispenses nearly 3 million servings of Coca-Cola annually.
  • If all the Coca-Cola vending machines in the U.S. were stacked one on top of each other, the pile would be over 450 miles high.

Care to know.... . .

that although "Coke" had long been a nickname for Coca-Cola, it wasn't registered as a trademark until 1941. Haddon Sundblom was commissioned to creat the "Sprite Boy" for the official introduction of "Coke" which was first used in 1842.

Pemberton then sold the rights to the Coca-Cola formula--he'd developed cancer and his morphine addiction had likely become very serious--but in 1887, he sold Willis Venable and George Lowndes two-thirds of the rights to the formula. "I am sick, and I believe I will never get out of this bed. The only thing I have is Coca-Cola. Coca-Cola some day will be a national drink. I want to keep a third interest in it so that my son will always have a living". With these words to Mr. Lowndes, Dr. Pemberton relinquished his control of Coca-Cola. Tragically--and even more ironic--Dr. Pemberton's son Charley would be dead from a morphine overdose only six years after Dr. Pemberton's own passing.

Chronological evolution about the automobile business

1782
James Watt builds the first engine crank.
1792
The first U.S. toll roads opened in PA and CT.
1860
Jean Lenoir invents the spark plug.
1887
The Benz became the first car offered for sale.
1896
The Duryea became the first production motor vehicle in the U.S.
1897
The first auto insurance policy is purchased in Westfield, MA.
1900
The first Guide Michelin published mostly containing a list of gas stations in France.
1901
The first Grand Prix race was won with an average speed of 46 mph.
1901
The first American car manufactured in any quantity, the "Curved Dash" Olds is offered for $650.
1913
More than one million cars registered in the U.S.
1914
The Chevrolet bow-tie emblem first appears.
1914
The first electric traffic light was installed in Cleveland.
1923
Powered windshield wipers became standard equipment on many cars.
1923
A radio was first offered as an accessory.
1939
Buick introduces turn signals as standard equipment.
1946
The first power windows were introduced.
1948
Harley Earl introduces the tail fin on the Cadillac. Fins don't go away for over a decade.
1953
Chevrolet introduces its Harley Earl-designed Corvette.
1954
Padded dashboards introduced for safety.
1956
Electric door locks introduced on several luxury models.
1958
The first remote adjusted side view mirror.
1958
Ford introduces the first electric trunk release.
1958
Chrysler introduces the day-night rearview mirror.
1960
All-weather antifreeze plus coolant introduced.
1963
Seat belts first offered as standard equipment.
1965
Rear seat belts became standard on most cars.
1974
National 55 mph speed limit enacted after oil shortages.
1984
Chrysler introduces the Dodge Caravan and Plymouth voyager minivans.
1972
Cars traveled along LA freeways at an average speed of 60 mph. In 1982 the average was only 17 mph!
1974
The average American family spent 33 percent of their yearly income for a new car. In 1995 the average was 50 percent.
1995
the Big Three sold a whopping 97,000 cars in Japan.

"Kilroy Was Here"

Kilroy. The little cartoon bald head, peering over a fence that hid everything except his eyes and his long U-shaped nose... and sometimes his fingers, gripping the top of the fence. And his proclamation, "Kilroy was here."
Graffiti itself goes back to ancient times. Graffiti is found in the ruins of Pompeii, on the walls of ancient Jerusalem, in ancient Egypt. Kilroy follows a long tradition, but was far more famous and all-present than any of them.
"Kilroy was here" emerged during World War II, appearing at truck stops, city restaurants, and in military boardrooms. However, the first appearances seem to have been on military docks and ships in late 1939.
"The mischievous face and the phrase became a national joke," according to author Charles Panati. In theory, he was a soldier, probably American, who travelled all over the world scrawling his immortal phrase. Clearly, the graffiti were scrawled by thousands of different soldiers, not a single one named Kilroy.

This Legend of how "Kilroy was here" starts is with James J. Kilroy, a shipyard inspector during WWII. He chalked the words on bulkheads to show that he had been there and inspected the riveting in the newly constructed ship. To the troops in those ships, however, it was a complete mystery — all they knew for sure was that he had "been there first." As a joke, they began placing the graffiti wherever they (the US forces) landed or went, claiming it was already there when they arrived.
Kilroy became the US super-GI who always got there first — wherever GI's went. It became a challenge to place the logo in the most unlikely places. It was said to be atop Mt. Everest, the Statue of Liberty, the underside of the Arch de Triumphe, and scrawled in the dust on the moon. An outhouse was built for the exclusive use of Truman, Stalin, and Churchill who were there for the Potsdam conference. The first person to use it was Stalin. He emerged and asked his aide (in Russian), "Who is Kilroy?"
WWII UDT (Under Water Demolition - later Navy Seals) divers swam ashore on Japanese held islands in the Pacific to prepare the beaches for the coming landings by US troops. They were sure to be the first GIs there! On more than one occasion, they reported seeing "Kilroy was here" scrawled on make shift signs or as graffiti on enemy pillboxes. They, in turn, often left similar signs for the next incoming GIs.
The tradition continued in every US military theater of operations throughout and following WWII.
In 1946 the Transit Company of America held a contest offering a prize of a real trolley car to the person who could prove himself to be the "real" Kilroy. Almost forty men stepped forward to make that claim, but James Kilroy brought along officials from the shipyard and some of the riveters to help prove his authenticity. James Kilroy won the prize of the trolley car which he gave it to his nine children as a Christmas gift and set it up in their front yard for a playhouse.

From: http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A508277

James J Kilroy was a ship inspector at the Fore River Shipyard in Quincy, Massachusetts, USA. It was his responsibility to check on how many holes a riveter had filled in a shift on any given day. In order to prevent double counting by dishonest riveters and to prove to his supervisors that he'd been doing his work, he began marking 'Kilroy was here' inside the hulls of the ships being built. He used yellow crayon so it would be easily visible; this way the off-shift inspectors wouldn't count the rivets more than once and pay the riveter for work he hadn't done.

Once the ship became operative, carrying military troops that were headed overseas and bound for the war, the phrase was a complete mystery. Why it was there and being found in such out of the way places made it all the more mysterious. All they could be certain of was that Kilroy, whoever he was, had 'been there first'. As a joke, troops began placing the graffiti wherever the US forces landed and claimed it had already been there when they'd arrived.

Whoever originated it, Kilroy quickly became the United States super GI who had always already been wherever men were sent by the military. The game quickly became a challenge to put the picture and slogan in the most unlikely places imaginable first.

According to author Charles Panati, it's supposed to be atop Mount Everest, on the torch of the Statue of Liberty, on the underside of the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, on the Marco Polo Bridge in China, on huts in Polynesia, on a girder on the George Washington Bridge in New York and scrawled in the dust on the moon. Panati also wrote that an outhouse was built, during the Potsdam Conference in July of 1945, for use exclusively by Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill. The first of the three to utilize the facility was Stalin. Upon emerging he inquired of his nearby aide, 'Who is Kilroy?' This was supposedly overheard by a translator and is where the story comes from.

Kilroy and Hitler - The Rumour
Near the end of World War II, Adolf Hitler was absolutely and completely paranoid regarding one insurgent in particular. This individual seemed able to get into everything and anything that was thought to be secure in Nazi, Germany. He (Hitler) ordered his best men to begin actively searching for this super-spy and all troops were commanded to shoot and kill this menace.
The 'spy' Hitler was looking for was none other than Kilroy! GIs in occupied territory and spies in the German Army were vandalizing Nazi bases and equipment with the Kilroy logo and its well-known slogan. It wasn't intended as anything more than graffiti and a prank, but by the final year of Hitler's reign, he was convinced Kilroy could penetrate into any secure area and feared for his own safety thinking Kilroy was certain to kill him.

Origins
Oddly enough, as widespread as the Kilroy phenomenon was there is no concrete evidence to verify either when or where it began, nor who began it in each country (USA, England and Canada). In England, the Kilroy logo was known as Chad and his slogan consisted of 'Wot no...?' The blank was usually filled in with whatever there was a shortage of or whatever was being rationed at the time. The Oxford English Dictionary states that Chad's origin is obscure, but that British Cartoonist George Edward Chatterton may have created it. Though the James J Kilroy story seems to be the most likely point of origin for the 'Kilroy was here' legend, there is possible evidence of occurrences of the Kilroy logo much earlier than World War II.
Though Chad was popular in England, just as Kilroy was in the US military, still nobody (other than James J Kilroy) has stepped forward to claim him as their own invention, even though there were 26 men named Kilroy in the military during WW2. There was also a Canadian version known as Clem and in the late 1960s there was a version in Los Angeles, California that went by the name of Overby. Perhaps the theory of Kilroy being an unknown super soldier wasn't so far off after all...

Godfather trivia

Brando often had his lines scattered across the set but not because he forgot them, it was because he believed that the best read was the first one so he didn't read scripts before hand. (Source: Special on Marlon Brando)

When Sonny beat his brother-in-law, he got hurt for real. James Caan broke two of Gianni Russo's ribs and chipped his elbow.

The infamous horse head was real. The crew found the horse in a New Jersey rendering plant and had it's head packed in ice and shipped to the set.

Al Pacino almost didn't get the part. It wasn't until the famous restaurant scene where they let him.

The Godfather was the first movie in over twenty years in which Marlon Brando was required to audition.

The studio heads wanted nothing to do with him, however they relented with the insistence of Coppola. - Scottman

While Sophia Coppola was the baby in GF1, she did not resume the role in GF3. In GF1 she played the son of Michaels sister whom Michael baptizes as all the family business is settled, and obviously in GF3 she plays a different role, Michaels daughter.

Al Pacino was paid $35,000 for the role as Michael, but was under contract to another studio that sued him for breach of contract, he was ordered to make two films for the other studio for free and pay the court costs. He wound up dead broke.

The Godfather Part II was the last American film to be printed in dye-transfer Technicolor.

Who's kissing Michael's hand in the first scene?
Ans. Rocco, the same man kissing his hand in the last scene of Part I

Introduction to film: The godfather was born Vito Andolini, in the town of Corleone in Sicily. In 1901 his father was murdered for an insult to the local Mafia chieftain [Don Ciccio]. His older brother Paolo swore revenge and disappeared into the hills, leaving Vito, the only male heir, to stand with his mother at the funeral. He was nine years old.

The cessna on which Tom & Fredo fly to Carson City on was licensed N32545.

The dead girl in Geary's bed (at Fredo's club) wasn't the first death in a pezzonavante's bed:
In Part I it was a horse's head

Who attended the Havana meeting?
The group included: William Shaw (General Fruit Company), Fulgenico Batista (Cuban ruler), Fred Corngold and Mr. Dant (United Telephone & Telegraph), Mr. Petty (Pan American Mining), Robert Allen (South American Sugar), Michael, Roth, and aides.

Who did Michael entertain in Havana?
Senator Geary (Nevada), Senator Payton (Florida), Judge DeMalco (New York), Senator Ream (Maryland)

The New Year reception was held at the Presidential Palace

The attempt on Pentangeli's life was made by the Rosato's on Roth's order. Anthony Rosato (played by Danny Aiello) tried to garrot him, saying "Micheal Coreleone says hello" which adds some confusion

Michael's bodyguard strangles Johnny Ola with a coat hanger

Michael's bodyguard is at the hospital at 10:20pm... but doesn't get shot until Midnight

What ailment did baby Fredo have?
Pneumonia

Who's more powerful than Fanucci?
Maranzallo.

The novel makes Fanucci out to be a fraud, that's why Maranzalla didn't avenge his life.

Sollozzo and McCluskey were murdered in 1947. The Heads of the Five Families were murdered in 1950

What were the guards playing before they found Pentangeli's body?
Hearts

Troy Donahue played Merle Johnson, the man Connie wanted to marry. Merle Johnson is Donahue's real name!

Nine year old Vito was tagged with #7 on his jacket, was on line #11 at Ellis Island, and slept in bed #52 for three months for his small pox quarentine. This was in 1901.

Anthony's first communion was in 1958 at Lake Tahoe, Nevada. Anthony's middle name is Vito

What was Michael's bodyguard's name? In the credits, he's "Michael's Bodyguard," but he's named "Bussetta" in The Companion)

Hyman Roth was celebrating his 67th birthday in Cuba

What was Frank Pentangeli's brother's name?
Vincenzo

Who introduces Carlo to Connie?
Sonny, in the flashback

Vito shot Fanucci three times: heart, face, and mouth

The woman who had a problem with her landlord was Signora Colombo. The landlord was Signor Roberto, who lived on 4th Street

The street address for GENCO Import Company was #514

Fabrizzio's name became Fred Vincent in America, and he opened Fred's Pizza in Buffalo. In the Epic, he was killed in a car bomb by Michael's men, like he killed Apollonia.

Al Neri is the one who shoots Fredo in the boat

15 minutes of the film is in Sicilian with English subtitles

The name of the ship that young Vito traveled to America on was called the Moshulu

The List of Popes

St. Peter (32-67)
St. Linus (67-76)
St. Anacletus (Cletus) (76-88)
St. Clement I (88-97)
St. Evaristus (97-105)
St. Alexander I (105-115)
St. Sixtus I (115-125) -- also called Xystus I
St. Telesphorus (125-136)
St. Hyginus (136-140)
St. Pius I (140-155)
St. Anicetus (155-166)
St. Soter (166-175)
St. Eleutherius (175-189)
St. Victor I (189-199)
St. Zephyrinus (199-217)
St. Callistus I (217-22) St. Hippolytus, Antipope (217-236)-->
St. Urban I (222-30)
St. Pontain (230-35)
St. Anterus (235-36)
St. Fabian (236-50)
St. Cornelius (251-53) Novatian, Antipope (251)-->
St. Lucius I (253-54)
St. Stephen I (254-257)
St. Sixtus II (257-258)
St. Dionysius (260-268)
St. Felix I (269-274)
St. Eutychian (275-283)
St. Caius (283-296) -- also called Gaius
St. Marcellinus (296-304)
St. Marcellus I (308-309)
St. Eusebius (309 or 310)
St. Miltiades (311-14)
St. Sylvester I (314-35)
St. Marcus (336)
St. Julius I (337-52)
Liberius (352-66) Felix II, Antipope (355-365)-->
St. Damasus I (366-83) Ursicinus, Antipope (366-367)-->
St. Siricius (384-99)
St. Anastasius I (399-401)
St. Innocent I (401-17)
St. Zosimus (417-18)
St. Boniface I (418-22) Eulalius, Antipope (418-419)-->
St. Celestine I (422-32)
St. Sixtus III (432-40)
St. Leo I (the Great) (440-61)
St. Hilarius (461-68)
St. Simplicius (468-83)
St. Felix III (II) (483-92)
St. Gelasius I (492-96)
Anastasius II (496-98)
St. Symmachus (498-514) Laurentius, Antipope (498-501)-->
St. Hormisdas (514-23)
St. John I (523-26)
St. Felix IV (III) (526-30)
Boniface II (530-32) Dioscorus, Antipope (530)-->
John II (533-35)
St. Agapetus I (535-36) -- also called Agapitus I
St. Silverius (536-37)
Vigilius (537-55)
Pelagius I (556-61)
John III (561-74)
Benedict I (575-79)
Pelagius II (579-90)
St. Gregory I (the Great) (590-604)
Sabinian (604-606)
Boniface III (607)
St. Boniface IV (608-15)
St. Deusdedit (Adeodatus I) (615-18)
Boniface V (619-25)
Honorius I (625-38)
Severinus (640)
John IV (640-42)
Theodore I (642-49)
St. Martin I (649-55)
St. Eugene I (655-57)
St. Vitalian (657-72)
Adeodatus (II) (672-76)
Donus (676-78)
St. Agatho (678-81)
St. Leo II (682-83)
St. Benedict II (684-85)
John V (685-86)
Conon (686-87)
St. Sergius I (687-701) Theodore, Antipope (687)-->Paschal, Antipope (687)-->
John VI (701-05)
John VII (705-07)
Sisinnius (708)
Constantine (708-15)
St. Gregory II (715-31)
St. Gregory III (731-41)
St. Zachary (741-52) Stephen II (752) -- Omitted from many lists (including the Vatican's) because he died before being consecrated.
Stephen III (752-57)
St. Paul I (757-67)
Stephen IV (767-72) Constantine II, Antipope (767)-->Philip, Antipope (768)-->
Adrian I (772-95)
St. Leo III (795-816)
Stephen V (816-17)
St. Paschal I (817-24)
Eugene II (824-27)
Valentine (827)
Gregory IV (827-44)
Sergius II (844-47) John, Antipope (855)-->
St. Leo IV (847-55)
Benedict III (855-58) Anastasius, Antipope (855)-->
St. Nicholas I (the Great) (858-67)
Adrian II (867-72)
John VIII (872-82)
Marinus I (882-84)
St. Adrian III (884-85)
Stephen VI (885-91)
Formosus (891-96)
Boniface VI (896)
Stephen VII (896-97)
Romanus (897)
Theodore II (897)
John IX (898-900)
Benedict IV (900-03)
Leo V (903) Christopher, Antipope (903-904)-->
Sergius III (904-11)
Anastasius III (911-13)
Lando (913-14)
John X (914-28)
Leo VI (928)
Stephen VIII (929-31)
John XI (931-35)
Leo VII (936-39)
Stephen IX (939-42)
Marinus II (942-46)
Agapetus II (946-55)
John XII (955-63)
Leo VIII (963-64)
Benedict V (964)
John XIII (965-72)
Benedict VI (973-74)
Benedict VII (974-83) Boniface VII, Antipope (974; 984-985)-->
John XIV (983-84)
John XV (985-96)
Gregory V (996-99) John XVI, Antipope (997-998)-->
Sylvester II (999-1003)
John XVII (1003)
John XVIII (1003-09)
Sergius IV (1009-12)
Benedict VIII (1012-24) Gregory, Antipope (1012)-->
John XIX (1024-32)
Benedict IX (1032-45)
Sylvester III (1045) -- Considered by some to be an antipope
Benedict IX (1045)
Gregory VI (1045-46)
Clement II (1046-47)
Benedict IX (1047-48)
Damasus II (1048)
St. Leo IX (1049-54)
Victor II (1055-57)
Stephen X (1057-58)
Nicholas II (1058-61) Benedict X, Antipope (1058)-->
Alexander II (1061-73) Honorius II, Antipope (1061-1072)-->
St. Gregory VII (1073-85) Guibert ("Clement III"), Antipope (1080-1100)-->
Blessed Victor III (1086-87)
Blessed Urban II (1088-99)
Paschal II (1099-1118) Theodoric, Antipope (1100)-->Aleric, Antipope (1102)-->Maginulf ("Sylvester IV"), Antipope (1105-1111)-->
Gelasius II (1118-19) Burdin ("Gregory VIII"), Antipope (1118)-->
Callistus II (1119-24)
Honorius II (1124-30) Celestine II, Antipope (1124)-->
Innocent II (1130-43) Anacletus II, Antipope (1130-1138)-->Gregory Conti ("Victor IV"), Antipope (1138)-->
Celestine II (1143-44)
Lucius II (1144-45)
Blessed Eugene III (1145-53)
Anastasius IV (1153-54)
Adrian IV (1154-59)
Alexander III (1159-81) Octavius ("Victor IV"), Antipope (1159-1164)-->Pascal III, Antipope (1165-1168)-->Callistus III, Antipope (1168-1177)-->Innocent III, Antipope (1178-1180)-->
Lucius III (1181-85)
Urban III (1185-87)
Gregory VIII (1187)
Clement III (1187-91)
Celestine III (1191-98)
Innocent III (1198-1216)
Honorius III (1216-27)
Gregory IX (1227-41)
Celestine IV (1241)
Innocent IV (1243-54)
Alexander IV (1254-61)
Urban IV (1261-64)
Clement IV (1265-68)
Blessed Gregory X (1271-76)
Blessed Innocent V (1276)
Adrian V (1276)
John XXI (1276-77)
Nicholas III (1277-80)
Martin IV (1281-85)
Honorius IV (1285-87)
Nicholas IV (1288-92)
St. Celestine V (1294)
Boniface VIII (1294-1303)
Blessed Benedict XI (1303-04)
Clement V (1305-14)
John XXII (1316-34) Nicholas V, Antipope (1328-1330)-->
Benedict XII (1334-42)
Clement VI (1342-52)
Innocent VI (1352-62)
Blessed Urban V (1362-70)
Gregory XI (1370-78)
Urban VI (1378-89) Robert of Geneva ("Clement VII"), Antipope (1378-1394)-->
Boniface IX (1389-1404) Pedro de Luna ("Benedict XIII"), Antipope (1394-1417)-->Baldassare Cossa ("John XXIII"), Antipope (1400-1415)-->
Innocent VII (1404-06)
Gregory XII (1406-15) Pietro Philarghi ("Alexander V"), Antipope (1409-1410)-->
Martin V (1417-31)
Eugene IV (1431-47) Amadeus of Savoy ("Felix V"), Antipope (1439-1449)-->
Nicholas V (1447-55)
Callistus III (1455-58)
Pius II (1458-64)
Paul II (1464-71)
Sixtus IV (1471-84)
Innocent VIII (1484-92)
Alexander VI (1492-1503)
Pius III (1503)
Julius II (1503-13)
Leo X (1513-21)
Adrian VI (1522-23)
Clement VII (1523-34)
Paul III (1534-49)
Julius III (1550-55)
Marcellus II (1555)
Paul IV (1555-59)
Pius IV (1559-65)
St. Pius V (1566-72)
Gregory XIII (1572-85)
Sixtus V (1585-90)
Urban VII (1590)
Gregory XIV (1590-91)
Innocent IX (1591)
Clement VIII (1592-1605)
Leo XI (1605)
Paul V (1605-21)
Gregory XV (1621-23)
Urban VIII (1623-44)
Innocent X (1644-55)
Alexander VII (1655-67)
Clement IX (1667-69)
Clement X (1670-76)
Blessed Innocent XI (1676-89)
Alexander VIII (1689-91)
Innocent XII (1691-1700)
Clement XI (1700-21)
Innocent XIII (1721-24)
Benedict XIII (1724-30)
Clement XII (1730-40)
Benedict XIV (1740-58)
Clement XIII (1758-69)
Clement XIV (1769-74)
Pius VI (1775-99)
Pius VII (1800-23)
Leo XII (1823-29)
Pius VIII (1829-30)
Gregory XVI (1831-46)
Blessed Pius IX (1846-78)
Leo XIII (1878-1903)
St. Pius X (1903-14)
Benedict XV (1914-22)
Pius XI (1922-39)
Pius XII (1939-58)
Blessed John XXIII (1958-63)
Paul VI (1963-78)
John Paul I (1978)
John Paul II (1978-2005)
Benedict XVI (2005—) -->

The last married Roman Catholic Pope was Adrian II (867 - 872). He refuses to adopt celibacy upon ascending to tha papal throne

Manuel Colayco

1. Manuel Colayco was the first casualty of the Battle for Manila on Feb 3 - March 3, 1945.

Manuel Colayco was also the first Editor In Chief of The Guidon, The official news paper of Ateneo De Manila University.